Is E290 Halal or Haram?

featured Is E290 Halal or Haram

E290 has recently garnered attention from health-conscious and religious consumers who want to know if this common food additive is permitted according to halal guidelines.

This article will explore what exactly E290 is, how it’s made, any potential side effects, regulations around its use, dosage information, and ultimately whether it is considered halal or haram.

Key Takeaways

📌 What is E290: E290 is carbon dioxide (CO2), a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It’s commonly used in the food industry to make baked goods rise, carbonate soft drinks, and protect packaged foods from spoiling.
📌 How It’s Made: E290 can come from natural sources like the fermentation of alcohol or as a byproduct of various reactions. Artificially, it’s produced by burning hydrocarbon fuels or through chemical processes. Halal status depends on its source.
📌 Halal Status: E290 can be halal if derived from permissible sources. It’s considered haram if it originates from non-halal sources like pork. Muslims should verify the source of E290 in packaged foods for halal compliance.

What is E290?

E290 is the food additive carbon dioxide (CO2). It is a gas that is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. In food production, carbon dioxide is used as a leavening agent to give baked goods rise and texture.

In the food industry, E290 is used as a propellant and acidity regulator. It is also used to carbonate soft drinks and to protect packaged foods from oxidation.

Chemical Structure

Carbon dioxide (CO2) has a linear molecular structure. It consists of one carbon atom (C) bonded to two oxygen atoms (O). The bond angle between the oxygen-carbon-oxygen atoms is 180°, making it a linear molecule.

What Is E290 Made From?

E290 can be produced from natural sources or created artificially. Naturally occurring E290 is extracted from the fermentation process of making alcohol. It can also be derived as a byproduct when ammonia reacts with limestone or from the respiration of microorganisms.

Artificially, E290 is produced through the burning of hydrocarbon fuels or as a byproduct from certain chemical production processes. The most common artificial source is the reaction of sulfuric acid with calcium carbonate.

Possible Side Effects

While E290 is generally recognized as safe, excessive inhalation can lead to health issues. High concentrations of carbon dioxide can cause dizziness, shortness of breath, and in extreme cases, unconsciousness. However, the levels used in food and beverages are considered safe for consumption.

Regulations and Guidelines

The FDA allows carbon dioxide to be directly added to food products and beverages. It is approved for use as a leavening agent, pH control agent, non-flammable gas, propellant, and carbonating agent as per 21 CFR 184.1240.

In the EU, E290 is authorized as a food additive under Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008. The acceptable daily intake is listed as “quantum satis” meaning no numerical limit is needed.

Dosage and Administration

There is no daily intake limit set for E290 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

When used in food products, carbon dioxide levels should not exceed Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. The maximum usage levels depend on the food type and preparation method.

In sparkling water, soda, and beer, allowed concentrations are around 2-6 grams of CO2 per liter. The carbon dioxide quantity should be optimized based on sensory properties and consumer preference.

Is E290 Halal or Haram?

The source and method of production are key factors in determining if E290 is halal. Carbon dioxide derived naturally from plants, water, or microorganisms is considered halal. Artificially produced E290 can also be halal if it comes from halal neutral sources like hydrocarbon gases.

E290 is only considered haram if it comes from pork or other haram sources through fermentation or chemical reactions. Muslims should check the source of packaged foods containing E290 to confirm they are permissible for consumption.

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E290 or carbon dioxide is generally regarded as a safe food additive that serves functional purposes like leavening and carbonation. Both natural and artificial production methods can result in halal E290, but Muslims need to verify the source when present in packaged foods and beverages.

With the proper halal certification, E290 can be considered fully permissible. Allahu A’lam (Allah Knows Best)


What is the source of E290?

E290 is primarily sourced from the combustion of carbon-based materials and as a byproduct of fermentation processes.

Is E290 safe for consumption?

Yes, E290 is generally recognized as safe for consumption in regulated amounts.

What are some common food products that contain E290?

E290 is commonly found in carbonated beverages, beer, wine, and some packaged bread products.

What is the CAS number of E290?

The CAS number for E290 (carbon dioxide) is 124-38-9.

Is E290 banned in any country?

No, E290 is not banned in any country. However, its usage in food products is regulated to ensure consumer safety.


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